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The Man Versus the State
Herbert Spencer
(1884)

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The Man Versus the State The Man Versus the State
PrefacePreface
The Westminster Review for April 1860, contained an article entitled "Parliamentary Reform: the Dangers and the Safeguards." In that article I ventured to predict some results of political changes then proposed. Reduced to its simplest expression, the thesis maintained was that, unless due precautions were taken, increase of freedom in form would be followed by decrease of freedom in fact. Nothing has occurred to alter the belief I then expressed. The drift of legislation since that time has been of the kind anticipated. Dictatorial measures, rapidly multiplied, have tended continually to narrow the liberties of individuals; and have done this in a double way. Regulations have been made in yearly-growing numbers, restraining the citizen in directions where his actions were previously unchecked, and compelling actions which previously he might perform or not as he liked; and at the same time heavier public burdens, chiefly local, have further restricted his freedom, by lessening that portion of his earnings which he can spend as he pleases, and augmenting the portion taken from him to be spent as public agents please. The causes of these foretold effects, then in operation, continue in operation -- are, indeed, likely to be strengthened; and finding that the conclusions drawn respecting these causes and effects have proved true, I have been prompted to set forth and emphasize kindred conclusions respecting the future, and do what little may be done towards awakening attention to threatened evils. For this purpose were written the four following articles, originally published in the Contemporary Review for February, April, May, June and July of this year. To meet certain criticisms and to remove some of the objections likely to be raised, I have now added a postscript.

Bayswater, July, 1884




The Westminster Review for April 1860, contained an article entitled "Parliamentary Reform: the Dangers and the Safeguards." In that article I ventured to predict some results of political changes then proposed. Reduced to its simplest expression, the thesis maintained was that, unless due precautions were taken, increase of freedom in form would be followed by decrease of freedom in fact. Nothing has occurred to alter the belief I then expressed. The drift of legislation since that time has been of the kind anticipated. Dictatorial measures, rapidly multiplied, have tended continually to narrow the liberties of individuals; and have done this in a double way. Regulations have been made in yearly-growing numbers, restraining the citizen in directions where his actions were previously unchecked, and compelling actions which previously he might perform or not as he liked; and at the same time heavier public burdens, chiefly local, have further restricted his freedom, by lessening that portion of his earnings which he can spend as he pleases, and augmenting the portion taken from him to be spent as public agents please. The causes of these foretold effects, then in operation, continue in operation -- are, indeed, likely to be strengthened; and finding that the conclusions drawn respecting these causes and effects have proved true, I have been prompted to set forth and emphasize kindred conclusions respecting the future, and do what little may be done towards awakening attention to threatened evils. For this purpose were written the four following articles, originally published in the Contemporary Review for February, April, May, June and July of this year. To meet certain criticisms and to remove some of the objections likely to be raised, I have now added a postscript.

Bayswater, July, 1884




  • evil: Evil describes something or someone bad or cruel, not good.
  • view: To view is to look at something.
  • continue: To continue something is to keep doing it.
  • likely: If something likely happens, it will probably happen.
  • result: A result is something that happens because of something else.
  • since: Since is used to talk about a past event still happening now.
  • cause: To cause is to make something happen.
  • follow: To follow means to go behind someone and go where they go.
  • individual: An individual is one person.
  • hang: To hang something is to keep it above the ground.
  • propose: To propose something is to say that it should be done.
  • purpose: A purpose is the reason that you do something.
  • certain: If you are certain about something, you know it is true.
  • effect: An effect is a change made by something else.
  • guard: To guard something is to take care of it.
  • rest: To rest is to stop being active while the body gets back its strength.
  • spend: To spend is to use time doing something or being somewhere.
  • wake: To wake is to not be sleeping anymore.
  • article: An article is a story in a newspaper or magazine.
  • thin: If someone or something is thin, they are not fat.
  • contain: To contain something is to have it inside.
  • increase: To increase something is to make it larger or more.
  • owe: To owe is to have to pay or give back something received from another.
  • raise: To raise something is to lift it up.
  • direct: If something is direct, it goes straight between two places.
  • local: If something is local, it is nearby.
  • original: If something is original, it is the first one of that thing.
  • publish: To publish a book is to get it printed and ready to sell.
  • conclusion: The conclusion of something is the final part of it.
  • toward: If you go toward something, you go closer to it.
  • lie: To lie is to say or write something untrue to deceive someone.
  • war: A war is a big fight between two groups of people.
  • operation: An operation is when a doctor replaces or removes something in the body.
  • earn: To earn means to get money for the work you do.
  • occur: To occur means to happen.
  • set: To set something is to put it somewhere.
  • remove: To remove something is to take it away.
  • critic: A critic is someone who give their opinions about movies, books, plays.
  • perform: To perform is to do something in front of people who watch.
  • public: If something is public, it is meant for everyone to use.
  • tip: A tip is a pointed end of something.
  • attention: Attention is the notice, thought, or consideration of someone.
  • further: Further is used to say something is from a distance or time.
  • maintain: To maintain means to make something stay the same.
  • prove: To prove something is to show that it is true.
  • predict: To predict something is to say that it will happen.
  • respect: Respect is a good opinion of someone because they are good.
  • strength: Strength is the physical power that you have.
  • belief: A belief is a strong feeling that something is correct or true.

  • evil: Evil describes something or someone bad or cruel, not good.
  • view: To view is to look at something.
  • continue: To continue something is to keep doing it.
  • likely: If something likely happens, it will probably happen.
  • result: A result is something that happens because of something else.
  • since: Since is used to talk about a past event still happening now.
  • cause: To cause is to make something happen.
  • follow: To follow means to go behind someone and go where they go.
  • individual: An individual is one person.
  • hang: To hang something is to keep it above the ground.
  • propose: To propose something is to say that it should be done.
  • purpose: A purpose is the reason that you do something.
  • certain: If you are certain about something, you know it is true.
  • effect: An effect is a change made by something else.
  • guard: To guard something is to take care of it.
  • rest: To rest is to stop being active while the body gets back its strength.
  • spend: To spend is to use time doing something or being somewhere.
  • wake: To wake is to not be sleeping anymore.
  • article: An article is a story in a newspaper or magazine.
  • thin: If someone or something is thin, they are not fat.
  • contain: To contain something is to have it inside.
  • increase: To increase something is to make it larger or more.
  • owe: To owe is to have to pay or give back something received from another.
  • raise: To raise something is to lift it up.
  • direct: If something is direct, it goes straight between two places.
  • local: If something is local, it is nearby.
  • original: If something is original, it is the first one of that thing.
  • publish: To publish a book is to get it printed and ready to sell.
  • conclusion: The conclusion of something is the final part of it.
  • toward: If you go toward something, you go closer to it.
  • lie: To lie is to say or write something untrue to deceive someone.
  • war: A war is a big fight between two groups of people.
  • operation: An operation is when a doctor replaces or removes something in the body.
  • earn: To earn means to get money for the work you do.
  • occur: To occur means to happen.
  • set: To set something is to put it somewhere.
  • remove: To remove something is to take it away.
  • critic: A critic is someone who give their opinions about movies, books, plays.
  • perform: To perform is to do something in front of people who watch.
  • public: If something is public, it is meant for everyone to use.
  • tip: A tip is a pointed end of something.
  • attention: Attention is the notice, thought, or consideration of someone.
  • further: Further is used to say something is from a distance or time.
  • maintain: To maintain means to make something stay the same.
  • prove: To prove something is to show that it is true.
  • predict: To predict something is to say that it will happen.
  • respect: Respect is a good opinion of someone because they are good.
  • strength: Strength is the physical power that you have.
  • belief: A belief is a strong feeling that something is correct or true.

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