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Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei
Karl Marx
(1848)

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Manifesto Comunista The Communist Manifesto
I. Burgueses e ProletáriosI. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS
A história de todas as sociedades que existiram até nossos dias tem sido a história das lutas de classes.

Homem livre e escravo, patrício e plebeu, barão e servo, mestre de corporação e companheiro, numa palavra, opressores e oprimidos, em constante oposição, têm vivido numa guerra ininterrupta, ora franca, ora disfarçada; uma guerra que terminou sempre, ou por uma transformação revolucionária, da sociedade inteira, ou pela destruição das duas classes em luta.

Nas primeiras épocas históricas, verificamos, quase por toda parte, uma completa divisão da sociedade em classes distintas, uma escala graduada de condições sociais. Na Roma antiga encontramos patrícios, cavaleiros, plebeus, escravos; na Idade Média, senhores, vassalos, mestres, companheiros, servos; e, em quase que em cada uma destas classes, novas divisões hierárquicas.

A sociedade burguesa moderna, que brotou das ruínas da sociedade feudal, não suplantou os velhos antagonismos de classe. Ela colocou no lugar novas classes, novas condições de opressão, novas formas de luta.

Entretanto, a nossa época — a época da burguesia — caracteriza-se por ter simplificado os antagonismos de classe. A sociedade divide-se cada vez mais em dois vastos campos opostos, em duas grandes classes diametralmente opostas: a burguesia e o proletariado.

Dos servos da Idade Média nasceram os burgueses livres das primeiras cidades; desta população municipal, saíram os primeiros elementos da burguesia.

A descoberta da América, a circunavegação da África ofereceram à burguesia em assenso um novo campo de ação. Os mercados da Índia e da China, a colonização da América, o comércio colonial, o incremento dos meios de troca e, em geral, das mercadorias imprimiram um impulso, desconhecido até então, ao comércio, à indústria, à navegação, e, por conseguinte, desenvolveram rapidamente o elemento revolucionário da sociedade feudal em decomposição.

A antiga organização feudal da indústria, em que esta era circunscrita a corporações fechadas, já não podia satisfazer às necessidades que cresciam com a abertura de novos mercados. A manufatura a substituiu. A pequena burguesia industrial suplantou os mestres das corporações; a divisão do trabalho entre as diferentes corporações desapareceu diante da divisão do trabalho dentro da própria oficina.

Todavia, os mercados ampliavam-se cada vez mais: a procura de mercadorias aumentava sempre. A própria manufatura tornou-se insuficiente; então, o vapor e a maquinaria revolucionaram a produção industrial. A grande indústria moderna suplantou a manufatura; a média burguesia manufatureira cedeu lugar aos milionários da indústria, aos chefes de verdadeiros exércitos industriais, aos burgueses modernos.

A grande indústria criou o mercado mundial preparado pela descoberta da América: O mercado mundial acelerou prodigiosamente o desenvolvimento do comércio, da navegação e dos meios de comunicação por terra. Este desenvolvimento reagiu por sua vez sobre a extensão da indústria; e, à medida que a indústria, o comércio, a navegação, as vias férreas se desenvolviam, crescia a burguesia, multiplicando seus capitais e relegando a segundo plano as classes legadas pela Idade Média.

Vemos, pois, que a própria burguesia moderna é o produto de um longo processo de desenvolvimento, de uma série de revoluções no modo de produção e de troca.

Cada etapa da evolução percorrida, pela burguesia era acompanhada de um progresso político correspondente. Classe oprimida pelo despotismo feudal, associação armada administrando-se a si própria na comuna; aqui, república urbana independente, ali, terceiro estado, tributário da monarquia; depois, durante o período manufatureiro, contrapeso da nobreza na monarquia feudal ou absoluta, pedra angular das grandes monarquias, a burguesia, desde o estabelecimento da grande indústria e do mercado mundial, conquistou, finalmente, a soberania política exclusiva no Estado representativo moderno. O governo moderno não é senão um comitê para gerir os negócios comuns de toda a classe burguesa.

A burguesia desempenhou na História um papel eminentemente revolucionário.

Onde quer que tenha conquistado o poder, a burguesia calcou aos pés as relações feudais, patriarcais e idílicas. Todos os complexos e variados laços que prendiam o homem feudal a seus “superiores naturais” ela os despedaçou sem piedade, para só deixar subsistir, de homem para homem, o laço do frio interesse, as duras exigências do “pagamento à vista”. Afogou os fervores sagrados do êxtase religioso, do entusiasmo cavalheiresco, do sentimentalismo pequeno-burguês nas águas geladas do cálculo egoísta. Fez da dignidade pessoal um simples valor de troca; substituiu as numerosas liberdades, conquistadas com tanto esforço, pela única e implacável liberdade de comércio. Em uma palavra, em lugar da exploração velada por ilusões religiosas e políticas, a burguesia colocou uma exploração aberta, cínica, direta e brutal.

A burguesia despojou de sua auréola todas as atividades até então reputadas veneráveis e encaradas com piedoso respeito. Do médico, do jurista, do sacerdote, do poeta, do sábio fez seus servidores assalariados.

A burguesia rasgou o véu de sentimentalismo que envolvia as relações de família e reduziu-as a simples relações monetárias.

A burguesia revelou como a brutal manifestação de força na Idade Média, tão admirada pela reação, encontra seu complemento natural na ociosidade mais completa. Foi a primeira a provar o que pode realizar a atividade humana: criou maravilhas maiores que as pirâmides do Egito, os aquedutos romanos, as catedrais góticas; conduziu expedições que empanaram mesmo as antigas invasões e as Cruzadas.

A burguesia só pode existir com a condição de revolucionar incessantemente os instrumentos de produção, por conseguinte, as relações de produção e, como isso, todas as relações sociais. A conservação inalterada do antigo modo de produção constituía, pelo contrário, a primeira condição de existência de todas as classes industriais anteriores. Essa revolução contínua da produção, esse abalo constante de todo o sistema social, essa agitação permanente e essa falta de segurança distinguem a época burguesa de todas as precedentes. Dissolvem-se todas as relações sociais antigas e cristalizadas, com seu cortejo de concepções e de idéias secularmente veneradas; as relações que as substituem tornam-se antiquadas antes de se ossificar. Tudo que era sólido e estável se esfuma, tudo o que era sagrado é profanado, e os homens são obrigados finalmente a encarar com serenidade suas condições de existência e suas relações recíprocas.

Impelida pela necessidade de mercados sempre novos, a burguesia invade todo o globo. Necessita estabelecer-se em toda parte, explorar em toda parte, criar vínculos em toda, parte.

Pela exploração do mercado mundial a burguesia imprime um caráter cosmopolita à produção e ao consumo em todos os países. Para desespero dos reacionários, ela retirou à indústria sua base nacional. As velhas indústrias nacionais foram destruídas e continuam a sê-lo diariamente. São suplantadas por novas indústrias, cuja introdução se torna uma questão vital para todas as nações civilizadas, indústrias que não empregam mais matérias-primas autóctones, mas sim matérias-primas vindas das regiões mais distantes, e cujos produtos se consomem não somente no próprio país mas em todas as partes do globo. Em lugar das antigas necessidades, satisfeitas pelos produtos nacionais, nascem novas necessidades, que reclamam para sua satisfação os produtos das regiões mais longínquas e dos climas mais diversos. Em lugar do antigo isolamento de regiões e nações que se bastavam a si próprias, desenvolvem-se um intercâmbio universal, uma universal interdependência das nações. E isto se refere tanto à produção material como à produção intelectual.

As criações intelectuais de uma nação tornam-se propriedade comum de todas. A estreiteza e o exclusivismo nacionais tornam-se cada vez mais impossíveis; das inúmeras literaturas nacionais e locais, nasce uma literatura universal.

Devido ao rápido aperfeiçoamento dos instrumentos de produção e ao constante progresso dos meios de comunicação, a burguesia arrasta para a torrente da civilização mesmo as nações mais bárbaras. Os baixos preços de seus produtos são a artilharia pesada que destrói todas as muralhas da China e obriga a capitularem os bárbaros mais tenazmente hostis aos estrangeiros. Sob pena de morte, ela obriga todas as nações a adotarem o modo burguês de produção, constrange-as a abraçar o que ela chama civilização, isto é, a se tornarem burguesas. Em uma palavra, cria um mundo à sua imagem e semelhança.

A burguesia submeteu o campo à cidade. Criou grandes centros urbanos; aumentou prodigiosamente. a população das cidades em relação à dos campos e, com isso, arrancou uma grande parte da população do embrutecimento da vida rural. Do mesmo modo que subordinou o campo à cidade, os países bárbaros ou semi-bárbaros aos países civilizados, subordinou os povos camponeses aos povos burgueses, o Oriente ao Ocidente.

A burguesia suprime cada vez mais a dispersão dos meios de produção, da propriedade e da população. Aglomerou as populações, centralizou os meios de produção e concentrou a propriedade em poucas mãos. A conseqüência necessária dessas transformações foi a centralização política. Províncias independentes, apenas ligadas por débeis laços federativos, possuindo interesses, leis, governos e tarifas aduaneiras diferentes, foram reunidas em uma só nação, com um só governo, uma só lei, um só interesse nacional de classe, uma só barreira alfandegária.

A burguesia, durante seu domínio de classe, apenas secular, criou forças produtivas mais numerosas e mais colossais que todas as gerações passadas em conjunto. A subjugação das forças da natureza, as máquinas, a aplicação da química à indústria e à agricultura, a navegação a vapor, as estradas de ferro, o telégrafo elétrico, a exploração de continentes inteiros, a canalização dos rios, populações inteiras brotando na terra como por encanto — que século anterior teria suspeitado que semelhantes forças produtivas estivessem adormecidas no seio do trabalho social?

Vemos pois: os meios de produção e de troca, sobre cuja base se ergue a burguesia, foram gerados no seio da sociedade feudal. Em um certo grau do desenvolvimento desses meios de produção e de troca, as condições em que a sociedade feudal produzia e trocava, a organização feudal da agricultura e da manufatura, em suma, o regime feudal de propriedade, deixaram de corresponder às forças produtivas em pleno desenvolvimento. Entravavam a produção em lugar de impulsioná-la. Transformaram-se em outras tantas cadeias que era preciso despedaçar; foram despedaçadas.

Em seu lugar, estabeleceu-se a livre concorrência, com uma organização social e política correspondente, com a supremacia econômica e política da classe burguesa.

Assistimos hoje a um processo semelhante. As relações burguesas de produção e de troca, o regime burguês de propriedade, a sociedade burguesa moderna, que conjurou gigantescos meios de produção e de troca, assemelha-se ao feiticeiro que já não pode controlar as potências infernais que pôs em movimento com suas palavras mágicas. Há dezenas de anos, a história da indústria e do comércio não é senão a história da revolta das forças produtivas modernas contra as modernas relações de produção e de propriedade que condicionam a existência da burguesia e seu domínio. Basta mencionar as crises comerciais que, repetindo-se periodicamente, ameaçam cada vez mais a existência da sociedade burguesa. Cada crise destrói regularmente não só uma grande massa de produtos já fabricados, mas também uma grande parte das próprias forças produtivas já desenvolvidas. Uma epidemia, que em qualquer outra época teria parecido um paradoxo, desaba sobre a sociedade — a epidemia da superprodução. Subitamente, a sociedade vê-se reconduzida a um estado de barbaria momentânea; dir-se-ia que a fome ou uma guerra de extermínio cortaram-lhe todos os meios de subsistência; a indústria e o comércio parecem aniquilados. E por quê? Porque a sociedade possui demasiada civilização, demasiados meios de subsistência, demasiada indústria, demasiado comércio. As forças produtivas de que dispõe não mais favorecem o desenvolvimento das relações de propriedade burguesa; pelo contrário, tornaram-se por demais poderosas para essas condições, que passam a entravá-las; e todas as vezes que as forças produtivas sociais se libertam desses entraves, precipitam na desordem a sociedade inteira e ameaçam a existência da propriedade burguesa. O sistema burguês tornou-se demasiado estreito para conter as riquezas criadas em seu seio. De que maneira consegue a burguesia vencer essas crises? De um lado, pela destruição violenta de grande quantidade de forças produtivas; de outro lado, pela conquista de novos mercados e pela exploração mais intensa dos antigos. A que leva isso? Ao preparo de crises mais extensas e mais destruidoras e à diminuição dos meios de evitá-las.

As armas que a burguesia utilizou para abater o feudalismo, voltam-se hoje contra a própria burguesia. A burguesia, porém, não forjou somente as armas que lhe darão morte; produziu também os homens que manejarão essas armas — os operários modernos, os proletários. Com o desenvolvimento da burguesia, isto é, do capital, desenvolve-se também o proletariado, a classe dos operários modernos, que só podem viver se encontrarem trabalho, e que só encontram trabalho na medida em que este aumenta o capital. Esses operários, constrangidos a vender-se diariamente, são mercadoria, artigo de comércio como qualquer outro; em conseqüência, estão sujeitos a todas as vicissitudes da concorrência, a todas as flutuações do mercado. O crescente emprego de máquinas e a divisão do trabalho, despojando o trabalho do operário de seu caráter autônomo, tiram-lhe todo atrativo. O produtor passa a um simples apêndice da máquina e só se requer dele a operação mais simples, mais monótona, mais fácil de aprender. Desse modo, o custo do operário se reduz, quase exclusivamente, aos meios de manutenção que lhe são necessários para viver e perpetuar sua existência. Ora, o preço do trabalho, como de toda mercadoria, é igual ao custo de sua produção. Portanto, à medida que aumenta o caráter enfadonho do trabalho, decrescem os salários. Mais ainda, a quantidade de trabalho cresce com o desenvolvimento do maquinismo e da divisão do trabalho, quer pelo prolongamento das horas de labor, quer pelo aumento do trabalho exigido em um tempo determinado, pela aceleração do movimento das máquinas, etc. A indústria moderna transformou a pequena oficina do antigo mestre da corporação patriarcal na grande fábrica do industrial capitalista. Massas de operários, amontoados na fábrica, são organizadas militarmente. Como soldados da indústria, estão sob a vigilância de uma hierarquia completa de oficiais e suboficiais. Não são somente escravos da classe burguesa, do Estado burguês, mas também diariamente, a cada hora, escravos da máquina, do contramestre e, sobretudo, do dono da fábrica. E esse despotismo é tanto mais mesquinho, odioso e exasperador quanto maior é a franqueza com que proclama ter no lucro seu objetivo exclusivo. Quanto menos o trabalho exige habilidade e força, isto é, quanto mais a indústria moderna progride, tanto mais o trabalho dos homens é suplantado pelo das mulheres e crianças. As diferenças de idade e de sexo não têm mais importância social para a classe operária. Não há senão instrumentos de trabalho, cujo preço varia segundo a idade e o sexo. Depois de sofrer a exploração do fabricante e de receber seu salário em dinheiro, o operário torna-se presa de outros membros da burguesia, do proprietário, do varejista, do usurário, etc. As camadas inferiores da classe média de outrora, os pequenos industriais, pequenos comerciantes e pessoas que possuem rendas, artesãos e camponeses, caem nas fileiras do proletariado: uns porque seus pequenos capitais, não lhes permitindo empregar os processos da grande indústria, sucumbiram na concorrência com os grandes capitalistas; outros porque sua habilidade profissional é depreciada pelos novos métodos de produção. Assim, o proletariado é recrutado em todas as classes da população. O proletariado passa por diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. Logo que nasce começa sua luta contra a burguesia. A princípio, empenham-se na luta operários isolados, mais tarde, operários de uma mesma fábrica, finalmente operários do mesmo ramo de indústria, de uma mesma localidade, contra o burguês que os explora diretamente. Não se limitam a atacar as relações burguesas de produção, atacam os instrumentos de produção: destroem as mercadorias estrangeiras que lhes fazem concorrência, quebram as máquinas, queimam as fábricas e esforçam-se para reconquistar a posição perdida do artesão da Idade Média. Nessa fase, constitui o proletariado massa disseminada por todo o país e dispersa pela concorrência. Se, por vezes, os operários se unem para agir em massa compacta, isto não é ainda o resultado de sua própria união, mas da união da burguesia que, para atingir seus próprios fins políticos, é levada a por em movimento todo o proletariado, o que ainda pode fazer provisoriamente. Durante essa fase, os proletários não combatem ainda seus próprios inimigos, mas os inimigos de seus inimigos, isto é, os restos da monarquia absoluta, os proprietários territoriais, os burgueses não industriais, os pequenos burgueses. Todo o movimento histórico está desse modo concentrado nas mães da burguesia e qualquer vitória alcançada nessas condições é uma vitória burguesa. Ora, a indústria, desenvolvendo-se, não somente aumenta o número dos proletários, mas concentra-os em massas cada vez mais consideráveis; sua força cresce e eles adquirem maior consciência dela. Os interesses, as condições de existência dos proletários se igualam cada vez mais, à medida que a máquina extingue toda diferença do trabalho e quase por toda parte reduz o salário a um nível igualmente baixo. Em virtude da concorrência crescente dos burgueses entre si e devido às crises comerciais que disso resultam, os salários se tornam cada vez mais instáveis; o aperfeiçoamento constante e cada vez mais rápido das máquinas torna a condição de vida do operário cada vez mais precária; os choques individuais entre o operário e o burguês tomam cada vez mais o caráter de choques entre duas classes. Os operários começam a formar uniões contra os burgueses e atuam em comum na defesa de seus salários; chegam a fundar associações permanentes a fim de se prepararem, na previsão daqueles choques eventuais. Aqui e ali a luta se transforma em motim. Os operários triunfam às vezes; mas é um triunfo efêmero. O verdadeiro resultado de suas lutas não é o êxito imediato, mas a união cada vez mais ampla dos trabalhadores. Esta união é facilitada pelo crescimento dos meios de comunicação criados pela grande indústria e que permitem o contato entre operários de localidades diferentes. Ora, basta esse contato para concentrar as numerosas lutas locais, que têm o mesmo caráter em toda parte, em uma luta nacional, em uma luta de classes. Mas toda luta de classes é uma luta política. E a união que os habitantes das cidades da Idade Média levavam séculos a realizar, com seus caminhos vicinais, os proletários modernos realizam em alguns anos por meio das vias férreas. A organização do proletariado em classe e, portanto, em partido político, é incessantemente destruída pela concorrência que fazem entre si os próprios operários. Mas renasce sempre, e cada vez mais forte, mais firme, mais poderosa. Aproveita-se das divisões intestinas da burguesia para obrigá-la ao reconhecimento legal de certos interesses da classe operária, como, por exemplo, a lei da jornada de dez horas de trabalho na Inglaterra. Em geral, os choques que se produzem na velha sociedade favorecem de diversos modos o desenvolvimento do proletariado. A burguesia vive em guerra perpétua; primeiro, contra a aristocracia; depois, contra as frações da própria burguesia cujos interesses se encontram em conflito com os progressos da indústria; e sempre contra a burguesia dos países estrangeiros. Em todas essas lutas, vê-se forçada a apelar para o proletariado, reclamar seu concurso e arrastá-lo assim para o movimento político, de modo que a burguesia fornece aos proletários os elementos de sua própria educação política, isto é, armas contra ela própria. Demais, como já vimo, frações inteiras da classe dominante, em conseqüência do desenvolvimento da indústria são precipitadas no proletariado, ou ameaçadas, pelo menos, em suas condições de existência. Também elas trazem ao proletariado numerosos elementos de educação. Finalmente, nos períodos em que a luta de classes se aproxima da hora decisiva, o processo de dissolução da classe dominante, de toda a velha sociedade, adquire um caráter tão violento e agudo, que uma pequena fração da classe dominante se desliga desta, ligando-se à classe, revolucionária, a classe que traz em si o futuro. Do mesmo modo que outrora uma parte da nobreza passou-se para a burguesia, em nossos dias, uma parte da burguesia passa-se para o proletariado, especialmente a parte dos ideólogos burgueses que chegaram à compreensão teórica do movimento histórico em seu conjunto. De todas as classes que ora enfrentam a burguesia, só o proletariado é uma classe verdadeiramente revolucionária. As outras classes degeneram e perecem com o desenvolvimento da grande indústria; o proletariado pelo contrário, é seu produto mais autêntico. As classes médias — pequenos comerciantes, pequenos fabricantes, artesãos, camponeses — combatem a burguês — porque esta compromete sua existência como classes médias. Não são, pois, revolucionárias, mas conservadoras; mais ainda, reacionárias, pois pretendem fazer girar para trás a rada da História. Quando são revolucionárias é em conseqüência de sua iminente passagem para o proletariado; não defendem então seus interesses atuais, mas seus interesses futuros; abandonam seu próprio ponto de vista para se colocar no do proletariado.

O lumpen-proletariado, esse produto passivo da putrefação das camadas mais baixas da velha sociedade, pode, às vezes, ser arrastado ao movimento por uma revolução proletária; todavia, suas condições de vida o predispõem mais a vender-se a reação.

Nas condições de existência do proletariado já estão destruídas as da velha sociedade. O proletário não tem propriedade; suas relações com a mulher e os filhos nada têm de comum com as relações familiares burguesas. O trabalho industrial moderno, a sujeição do operário pelo capital, tanto na Inglaterra como na França, na América como na Alemanha, despoja o proletário de todo caráter nacional. As leis, a moral, a religião são para ele meros preconceitos burgueses, atrás dos quais se ocultam outros tantos interesses burgueses.

Todas as classes que no passado conquistaram o poder trataram de consolidar a situação adquirida submetendo a sociedade às suas condições de apropriação. Os proletários não podem apoderar-se das forças produtivas sociais senão abolindo o modo de apropriação que era próprio a estas e, por conseguinte, todo modo de apropriação em vigor até hoje. Os proletários nada têm de seu a salvaguardar; sua missão é destruir todas as garantias e seguranças da propriedade privada até aqui existentes.

Todos os movimentos históricos têm sido, até hoje, movimentos de minorias ou em proveito de minorias. O movimento proletário é o movimento independente da imensa maioria em proveito da imensa maioria. O proletariado, a camada inferior da sociedade atual, não pode erguer-se, por-se de pé, sem fazer saltar todos os estratos superpostos que constituem a sociedade oficial.

A luta do proletariado contra a burguesia, embora não seja na essência uma luta nacional, reverte-se contudo dessa forma nos primeiros tempos. É natural que o proletariado de cada país deva, antes de tudo, liquidar sua própria burguesia.

Esboçando em linhas gerais as fases do desenvolvimento proletário, descrevemos a história da guerra civil, mais ou menos oculta, que lavra na sociedade atual, até a hora em que essa guerra explode numa revolução aberta e o proletariado estabelece sua dominação pela derrubada violenta da burguesia.

Todas as sociedades anteriores, como vimos, se basearam no antagonismo entre classes opressoras e classes oprimidas. Mas para oprimir uma classe é preciso poder garantir-lhe condições tais que lhe permitam pelo menos uma existência de escravo: O servo, em plena servidão, conseguia tornar-se membro da comuna, da mesma forma que o pequeno burguês, sob o jugo do absolutismo feudal, elevava-se à categoria de burguês. O operário moderno, pelo contrário, longe de se elevar com o progresso da indústria, desce cada vez mais abaixo das condições de sua própria classe. O trabalhador cai no pauperismo, e este cresce ainda mais rapidamente que a população e a riqueza. É, pois, evidente que a burguesia é incapaz de continuar desempenhando o papel de classe dominante; e de impor à sociedade, como lei suprema, as condições de existência de sua classe. Não pode exercer o seu ' domínio porque não pode mais assegurar a existência de seu escravo, mesmo no quadro de sua escravidão, porque é obrigada a deixá-lo cair numa tal situação, que deve nutri-lo em lugar de se fazer nutrir por ele. A sociedade não pode mais existir sob sua dominação, o que quer dizer que a existência da burguesia é, doravante, incompatível com a da sociedade.

A condição essencial da existência e da supremacia da classe burguesa é a acumulação da riqueza nas mãos dos particulares, a formação e o crescimento do capital a condição de existência do capital é o trabalho assalariado. Este baseia-se exclusivamente na concorrência dos operários entre si. O progresso da indústria, de que a burguesia é agente passivo e inconsciente, substitui o isolamento dos operários, resultante de sua competição, por sua união revolucionária mediante a associação. Assim, o desenvolvimento da grande indústria socava o terreno em que a burguesia assentou o seu regime de produção e de apropriação dos produtos. A burguesia produz, sobretudo, seus próprios coveiros. Sua queda e a vitória do proletariado são igualmente inevitáveis.




The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class
struggles.

Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master
and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant
opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now
open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary
re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the
contending classes.

In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a
complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold
gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights,
plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals,
guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these
classes, again, subordinate gradations.

The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal
society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but
established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of
struggle in place of the old ones. Our epoch, the epoch of the
bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has
simplified the class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more
splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes,
directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the
earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the
bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh
ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets,
the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in
the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce,
to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby,
to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid
development.

The feudal system of industry, under which industrial production was
monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing
wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The
guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle
class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds
vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even
manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery
revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was
taken by the giant, Modern Industry, the place of the industrial middle
class, by industrial millionaires, the leaders of whole industrial
armies, the modern bourgeois.

Modern industry has established the world-market, for which the
discovery of America paved the way. This market has given an immense
development to commerce, to navigation, to communication by land. This
development has, in its time, reacted on the extension of industry; and
in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in
the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital,
and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle
Ages.

We see, therefore, how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of
a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes
of production and of exchange.

Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a
corresponding political advance of that class. An oppressed class under
the sway of the feudal nobility, an armed and self-governing
association in the mediaeval commune; here independent urban republic
(as in Italy and Germany), there taxable “third estate” of the monarchy
(as in France), afterwards, in the period of manufacture proper,
serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a
counterpoise against the nobility, and, in fact, corner-stone of the
great monarchies in general, the bourgeoisie has at last, since the
establishment of Modern Industry and of the world-market, conquered for
itself, in the modern representative State, exclusive political sway.
The executive of the modern State is but a committee for managing the
common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie.

The bourgeoisie, historically, has played a most revolutionary part.

The bourgeoisie, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to
all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It has pitilessly torn
asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his “natural
superiors,” and has left remaining no other nexus between man and man
than naked self-interest, than callous “cash payment.” It has drowned
the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour, of chivalrous
enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of
egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange
value, and in place of the numberless and indefeasible chartered
freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom—Free Trade. In
one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political
illusions, naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.

The bourgeoisie has stripped of its halo every occupation hitherto
honoured and looked up to with reverent awe. It has converted the
physician, the lawyer, the priest, the poet, the man of science, into
its paid wage labourers.

The bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and
has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation.

The bourgeoisie has disclosed how it came to pass that the brutal
display of vigour in the Middle Ages, which Reactionists so much
admire, found its fitting complement in the most slothful indolence. It
has been the first to show what man’s activity can bring about. It has
accomplished wonders far surpassing Egyptian pyramids, Roman aqueducts,
and Gothic cathedrals; it has conducted expeditions that put in the
shade all former Exoduses of nations and crusades.

The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionising the
instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and
with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes
of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first
condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant
revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social
conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the
bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast-frozen
relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and
opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before
they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is
profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses, his
real conditions of life, and his relations with his kind.

The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the
bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle
everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere.

The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world-market given
a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every
country. To the great chagrin of Reactionists, it has drawn from under
the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. All
old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily
being destroyed. They are dislodged by new industries, whose
introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilised
nations, by industries that no longer work up indigenous raw material,
but raw material drawn from the remotest zones; industries whose
products are consumed, not only at home, but in every quarter of the
globe. In place of the old wants, satisfied by the productions of the
country, we find new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the
products of distant lands and climes. In place of the old local and
national seclusion and self-sufficiency, we have intercourse in every
direction, universal inter-dependence of nations. And as in material,
so also in intellectual production. The intellectual creations of
individual nations become common property. National one-sidedness and
narrow-mindedness become more and more impossible, and from the
numerous national and local literatures, there arises a world
literature.

The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of
production, by the immensely facilitated means of communication, draws
all, even the most barbarian, nations into civilisation. The cheap
prices of its commodities are the heavy artillery with which it batters
down all Chinese walls, with which it forces the barbarians’ intensely
obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate. It compels all nations,
on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it
compels them to introduce what it calls civilisation into their midst,
_i.e_., to become bourgeois themselves. In one word, it creates a world
after its own image.

The bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rule of the towns. It
has created enormous cities, has greatly increased the urban population
as compared with the rural, and has thus rescued a considerable part of
the population from the idiocy of rural life. Just as it has made the
country dependent on the towns, so it has made barbarian and
semi-barbarian countries dependent on the civilised ones, nations of
peasants on nations of bourgeois, the East on the West.

The bourgeoisie keeps more and more doing away with the scattered state
of the population, of the means of production, and of property. It has
agglomerated production, and has concentrated property in a few hands.
The necessary consequence of this was political centralisation.
Independent, or but loosely connected provinces, with separate
interests, laws, governments and systems of taxation, became lumped
together into one nation, with one government, one code of laws, one
national class-interest, one frontier and one customs-tariff. The
bourgeoisie, during its rule of scarce one hundred years, has created
more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all
preceding generations together. Subjection of Nature’s forces to man,
machinery, application of chemistry to industry and agriculture,
steam-navigation, railways, electric telegraphs, clearing of whole
continents for cultivation, canalisation of rivers, whole populations
conjured out of the ground—what earlier century had even a presentiment
that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labour?

We see then: the means of production and of exchange, on whose
foundation the bourgeoisie built itself up, were generated in feudal
society. At a certain stage in the development of these means of
production and of exchange, the conditions under which feudal society
produced and exchanged, the feudal organisation of agriculture and
manufacturing industry, in one word, the feudal relations of property
became no longer compatible with the already developed productive
forces; they became so many fetters. They had to be burst asunder; they
were burst asunder.

Into their place stepped free competition, accompanied by a social and
political constitution adapted to it, and by the economical and
political sway of the bourgeois class.

A similar movement is going on before our own eyes. Modern bourgeois
society with its relations of production, of exchange and of property,
a society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of
exchange, is like the sorcerer, who is no longer able to control the
powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells. For
many a decade past the history of industry and commerce is but the
history of the revolt of modern productive forces against modern
conditions of production, against the property relations that are the
conditions for the existence of the bourgeoisie and of its rule. It is
enough to mention the commercial crises that by their periodical return
put on its trial, each time more threateningly, the existence of the
entire bourgeois society. In these crises a great part not only of the
existing products, but also of the previously created productive
forces, are periodically destroyed. In these crises there breaks out an
epidemic that, in all earlier epochs, would have seemed an
absurdity—the epidemic of over-production. Society suddenly finds
itself put back into a state of momentary barbarism; it appears as if a
famine, a universal war of devastation had cut off the supply of every
means of subsistence; industry and commerce seem to be destroyed; and
why? Because there is too much civilisation, too much means of
subsistence, too much industry, too much commerce. The productive
forces at the disposal of society no longer tend to further the
development of the conditions of bourgeois property; on the contrary,
they have become too powerful for these conditions, by which they are
fettered, and so soon as they overcome these fetters, they bring
disorder into the whole of bourgeois society, endanger the existence of
bourgeois property. The conditions of bourgeois society are too narrow
to comprise the wealth created by them. And how does the bourgeoisie
get over these crises? On the one hand inforced destruction of a mass
of productive forces; on the other, by the conquest of new markets, and
by the more thorough exploitation of the old ones. That is to say, by
paving the way for more extensive and more destructive crises, and by
diminishing the means whereby crises are prevented.

The weapons with which the bourgeoisie felled feudalism to the ground
are now turned against the bourgeoisie itself.

But not only has the bourgeoisie forged the weapons that bring death to
itself; it has also called into existence the men who are to wield
those weapons—the modern working class—the proletarians.

In proportion as the bourgeoisie, _i.e_., capital, is developed, in the
same proportion is the proletariat, the modern working class,
developed—a class of labourers, who live only so long as they find
work, and who find work only so long as their labour increases capital.
These labourers, who must sell themselves piece-meal, are a commodity,
like every other article of commerce, and are consequently exposed to
all the vicissitudes of competition, to all the fluctuations of the
market.

Owing to the extensive use of machinery and to division of labour, the
work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and
consequently, all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the
machine, and it is only the most simple, most monotonous, and most
easily acquired knack, that is required of him. Hence, the cost of
production of a workman is restricted, almost entirely, to the means of
subsistence that he requires for his maintenance, and for the
propagation of his race. But the price of a commodity, and therefore
also of labour, is equal to its cost of production. In proportion
therefore, as the repulsiveness of the work increases, the wage
decreases. Nay more, in proportion as the use of machinery and division
of labour increases, in the same proportion the burden of toil also
increases, whether by prolongation of the working hours, by increase of
the work exacted in a given time or by increased speed of the
machinery, etc.

Modern industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal
master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist. Masses of
labourers, crowded into the factory, are organised like soldiers. As
privates of the industrial army they are placed under the command of a
perfect hierarchy of officers and sergeants. Not only are they slaves
of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois State; they are daily and
hourly enslaved by the machine, by the over-looker, and, above all, by
the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself. The more openly this
despotism proclaims gain to be its end and aim, the more petty, the
more hateful and the more embittering it is.

The less the skill and exertion of strength implied in manual labour,
in other words, the more modern industry becomes developed, the more is
the labour of men superseded by that of women. Differences of age and
sex have no longer any distinctive social validity for the working
class. All are instruments of labour, more or less expensive to use,
according to their age and sex.

No sooner is the exploitation of the labourer by the manufacturer, so
far at an end, that he receives his wages in cash, than he is set upon
by the other portions of the bourgeoisie, the landlord, the shopkeeper,
the pawnbroker, etc.

The lower strata of the middle class—the small tradespeople,
shopkeepers, retired tradesmen generally, the handicraftsmen and
peasants—all these sink gradually into the proletariat, partly because
their diminutive capital does not suffice for the scale on which Modern
Industry is carried on, and is swamped in the competition with the
large capitalists, partly because their specialized skill is rendered
worthless by the new methods of production. Thus the proletariat is
recruited from all classes of the population.

The proletariat goes through various stages of development. With its
birth begins its struggle with the bourgeoisie. At first the contest is
carried on by individual labourers, then by the workpeople of a
factory, then by the operatives of one trade, in one locality, against
the individual bourgeois who directly exploits them. They direct their
attacks not against the bourgeois conditions of production, but against
the instruments of production themselves; they destroy imported wares
that compete with their labour, they smash to pieces machinery, they
set factories ablaze, they seek to restore by force the vanished status
of the workman of the Middle Ages.

At this stage the labourers still form an incoherent mass scattered
over the whole country, and broken up by their mutual competition. If
anywhere they unite to form more compact bodies, this is not yet the
consequence of their own active union, but of the union of the
bourgeoisie, which class, in order to attain its own political ends, is
compelled to set the whole proletariat in motion, and is moreover yet,
for a time, able to do so. At this stage, therefore, the proletarians
do not fight their enemies, but the enemies of their enemies, the
remnants of absolute monarchy, the landowners, the non-industrial
bourgeois, the petty bourgeoisie. Thus the whole historical movement is
concentrated in the hands of the bourgeoisie; every victory so obtained
is a victory for the bourgeoisie.

But with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases
in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength
grows, and it feels that strength more. The various interests and
conditions of life within the ranks of the proletariat are more and
more equalised, in proportion as machinery obliterates all distinctions
of labour, and nearly everywhere reduces wages to the same low level.
The growing competition among the bourgeois, and the resulting
commercial crises, make the wages of the workers ever more fluctuating.
The unceasing improvement of machinery, ever more rapidly developing,
makes their livelihood more and more precarious; the collisions between
individual workmen and individual bourgeois take more and more the
character of collisions between two classes. Thereupon the workers
begin to form combinations (Trades Unions) against the bourgeois; they
club together in order to keep up the rate of wages; they found
permanent associations in order to make provision beforehand for these
occasional revolts. Here and there the contest breaks out into riots.

Now and then the workers are victorious, but only for a time. The real
fruit of their battles lies, not in the immediate result, but in the
ever-expanding union of the workers. This union is helped on by the
improved means of communication that are created by modern industry and
that place the workers of different localities in contact with one
another. It was just this contact that was needed to centralise the
numerous local struggles, all of the same character, into one national
struggle between classes. But every class struggle is a political
struggle. And that union, to attain which the burghers of the Middle
Ages, with their miserable highways, required centuries, the modern
proletarians, thanks to railways, achieve in a few years.

This organisation of the proletarians into a class, and consequently
into a political party, is continually being upset again by the
competition between the workers themselves. But it ever rises up again,
stronger, firmer, mightier. It compels legislative recognition of
particular interests of the workers, by taking advantage of the
divisions among the bourgeoisie itself. Thus the ten-hours’ bill in
England was carried.

Altogether collisions between the classes of the old society further,
in many ways, the course of development of the proletariat. The
bourgeoisie finds itself involved in a constant battle. At first with
the aristocracy; later on, with those portions of the bourgeoisie
itself, whose interests have become antagonistic to the progress of
industry; at all times, with the bourgeoisie of foreign countries. In
all these battles it sees itself compelled to appeal to the
proletariat, to ask for its help, and thus, to drag it into the
political arena. The bourgeoisie itself, therefore, supplies the
proletariat with its own instruments of political and general
education, in other words, it furnishes the proletariat with weapons
for fighting the bourgeoisie.

Further, as we have already seen, entire sections of the ruling classes
are, by the advance of industry, precipitated into the proletariat, or
are at least threatened in their conditions of existence. These also
supply the proletariat with fresh elements of enlightenment and
progress.

Finally, in times when the class struggle nears the decisive hour, the
process of dissolution going on within the ruling class, in fact within
the whole range of society, assumes such a violent, glaring character,
that a small section of the ruling class cuts itself adrift, and joins
the revolutionary class, the class that holds the future in its hands.
Just as, therefore, at an earlier period, a section of the nobility
went over to the bourgeoisie, so now a portion of the bourgeoisie goes
over to the proletariat, and in particular, a portion of the bourgeois
ideologists, who have raised themselves to the level of comprehending
theoretically the historical movement as a whole.

Of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today,
the proletariat alone is a really revolutionary class. The other
classes decay and finally disappear in the face of Modern Industry; the
proletariat is its special and essential product. The lower middle
class, the small manufacturer, the shopkeeper, the artisan, the
peasant, all these fight against the bourgeoisie, to save from
extinction their existence as fractions of the middle class. They are
therefore not revolutionary, but conservative. Nay more, they are
reactionary, for they try to roll back the wheel of history. If by
chance they are revolutionary, they are so only in view of their
impending transfer into the proletariat, they thus defend not their
present, but their future interests, they desert their own standpoint
to place themselves at that of the proletariat.

The “dangerous class,” the social scum, that passively rotting mass
thrown off by the lowest layers of old society, may, here and there, be
swept into the movement by a proletarian revolution; its conditions of
life, however, prepare it far more for the part of a bribed tool of
reactionary intrigue.

In the conditions of the proletariat, those of old society at large are
already virtually swamped. The proletarian is without property; his
relation to his wife and children has no longer anything in common with
the bourgeois family-relations; modern industrial labour, modern
subjection to capital, the same in England as in France, in America as
in Germany, has stripped him of every trace of national character. Law,
morality, religion, are to him so many bourgeois prejudices, behind
which lurk in ambush just as many bourgeois interests.

All the preceding classes that got the upper hand, sought to fortify
their already acquired status by subjecting society at large to their
conditions of appropriation. The proletarians cannot become masters of
the productive forces of society, except by abolishing their own
previous mode of appropriation, and thereby also every other previous
mode of appropriation. They have nothing of their own to secure and to
fortify; their mission is to destroy all previous securities for, and
insurances of, individual property.

All previous historical movements were movements of minorities, or in
the interests of minorities. The proletarian movement is the
self-conscious, independent movement of the immense majority, in the
interests of the immense majority. The proletariat, the lowest stratum
of our present society, cannot stir, cannot raise itself up, without
the whole superincumbent strata of official society being sprung into
the air.

Though not in substance, yet in form, the struggle of the proletariat
with the bourgeoisie is at first a national struggle. The proletariat
of each country must, of course, first of all settle matters with its
own bourgeoisie.

In depicting the most general phases of the development of the
proletariat, we traced the more or less veiled civil war, raging within
existing society, up to the point where that war breaks out into open
revolution, and where the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the
foundation for the sway of the proletariat.

Hitherto, every form of society has been based, as we have already
seen, on the antagonism of oppressing and oppressed classes. But in
order to oppress a class, certain conditions must be assured to it
under which it can, at least, continue its slavish existence. The serf,
in the period of serfdom, raised himself to membership in the commune,
just as the petty bourgeois, under the yoke of feudal absolutism,
managed to develop into a bourgeois. The modern laborer, on the
contrary, instead of rising with the progress of industry, sinks deeper
and deeper below the conditions of existence of his own class. He
becomes a pauper, and pauperism develops more rapidly than population
and wealth. And here it becomes evident, that the bourgeoisie is unfit
any longer to be the ruling class in society, and to impose its
conditions of existence upon society as an over-riding law. It is unfit
to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave
within his slavery, because it cannot help letting him sink into such a
state, that it has to feed him, instead of being fed by him. Society
can no longer live under this bourgeoisie, in other words, its
existence is no longer compatible with society.

The essential condition for the existence, and for the sway of the
bourgeois class, is the formation and augmentation of capital; the
condition for capital is wage-labour. Wage-labour rests exclusively on
competition between the laborers. The advance of industry, whose
involuntary promoter is the bourgeoisie, replaces the isolation of the
labourers, due to competition, by their revolutionary combination, due
to association. The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts
from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie
produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie, therefore,
produces, above all, is its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory
of the proletariat are equally inevitable.



  • attack: To attack is to try to fight or to hurt.
  • finally: If something happens finally, it happens after a longtime or at the end.
  • lot: A lot means a large number or amount of people, animals, things, etc.
  • middle: The middle of something is the center or halfway point.
  • moment: A moment is a second or a very short time.
  • moment: A moment is a second or a very short time.
  • create: To create means to make something new.
  • kill: To kill someone or something is to make them die.
  • among: If you are among certain things, they are all around you.
  • chart: A chart is a list of information.
  • comprehend: To comprehend something is to understand it.
  • ever: Ever means at any time.
  • instead: Instead means in place of.
  • solve: To solve something is to find an answer to it.
  • suddenly: If something happens suddenly, it happens quickly and unexpectedly.
  • view: To view is to look at something.
  • appropriate: When a thing is appropriate, it is right or normal.
  • represent: To represent is to speak or act for a person or group.
  • continue: To continue something is to keep doing it.
  • result: A result is something that happens because of something else.
  • roll: To roll is to move by turning over and over.
  • since: Since is used to talk about a past event still happening now.
  • advantage: An advantage is something that helps you.
  • cause: To cause is to make something happen.
  • face: If you face a problem, you deal with it.
  • individual: An individual is one person.
  • pet: A pet is an animal that lives with people.
  • return: To return is to go back to a place.
  • upset: To be upset is to be unhappy about something.
  • claim: To claim means to say that something is true.
  • condition: The condition of someone or something is the state that they are in.
  • force: Force is a person’s strength or power.
  • harm: Harm is hurt or problems caused to someone or something.
  • lay: To lay means to put or place in a horizontal or flat position.
  • sense: To sense something is to know about it without being told.
  • sudden: When something is sudden, it happens very quickly.
  • therefore: Therefore means for this reason.
  • arrange: To arrange things is to put them in the right place.
  • hang: To hang something is to keep it above the ground.
  • necessary: If something is necessary, you must do it.
  • require: To require something is to say that it is necessary.
  • single: If something is single, then there is only one.
  • against: To be against something is to be touching it or opposed to it.
  • discover: To discover something is to find it for the first time.
  • fix: To fix something is to make it work.
  • prevent: To prevent something is to stop it from happening.
  • save: To save something is to keep it from being hurt.
  • step: To step is to walk.
  • still: Still is used when you say that a situation keeps going on.
  • throw: To throw something is to use your hand to make it go through the air.
  • certain: If you are certain about something, you know it is true.
  • chance: A chance is an opportunity to do something.
  • essential: If something is essential, it is very important and necessary.
  • far: If something is far, it is not close.
  • image: The image of something is a picture of it.
  • immediate: If something is immediate, it happens quickly.
  • remain: To remain somewhere is to stay there.
  • rest: To rest is to stop being active while the body gets back its strength.
  • separate: If two things are separate, they are not together.
  • compete: To compete is to try to be better than someone.
  • either: Either is used with or to say there are two or more possibilities.
  • ground: The ground is the top part of the Earth that we walk on.
  • introduce: To introduce someone or something is to say who they are.
  • prepare: To prepare is to get ready for something.
  • alone: If someone is alone, they are not with another person.
  • article: An article is a story in a newspaper or magazine.
  • compare: To compare means to say how two things are the same and different.
  • material: A material is what is used to make something.
  • meal: A meal is a time when food is eaten like breakfast, lunch, or dinner.
  • method: A method is the way to do something.
  • thin: If someone or something is thin, they are not fat.
  • demand: To demand something is to say strongly that you want it.
  • equal: To be equal is to be the same.
  • feed: To feed is to give food.
  • hole: A hole is an opening in something.
  • increase: To increase something is to make it larger or more.
  • lord: Long ago, a lord was a man in charge of a town.
  • owe: To owe is to have to pay or give back something received from another.
  • position: A position is the way something is placed.
  • raise: To raise something is to lift it up.
  • spot: A spot is a place where something happens.
  • whole: Whole means all of something.
  • control: To control something is to make it do what you want.
  • direct: If something is direct, it goes straight between two places.
  • local: If something is local, it is nearby.
  • poet: A poet is a person who writes poems.
  • store: A store is a place where you can buy things.
  • consume: To consume something means to eat or drink it.
  • race: A race is a contest to see who is the fastest.
  • respond: To respond is to give an answer to what someone else said.
  • wonder: To wonder is to ask yourself questions or have a need to know.
  • yet: Yet is used to say something has not happened up to now.
  • ancient: If something is ancient, it is very old.
  • century: A century is one hundred years.
  • exist: To exist is to be real.
  • hidden: Hidden means to be not easily noticed or too hard to find.
  • officer: An officer is a leader in the army.
  • process: A process is the steps to take to do something.
  • wealth: Wealth is a large amount of money.
  • disappear: To disappear means to go away or not be seen.
  • fair: Fair describes treating someone in a way that is reasonable or right.
  • level: A level is a point on a scale that measures something.
  • lone: If someone or something is lone, they are the only one of that kind.
  • solution: A solution is a way to solve a problem.
  • whether: You use whether when you must choose between two things.
  • crowd: A crowd is a large group of people.
  • depend: To depend on someone or something is to need them.
  • exact: If something is exact, it is just the right amount.
  • fresh: If something is fresh, it is new.
  • price: The price of something is how much it costs.
  • product: A product is something that is made.
  • property: Property is something that someone owns.
  • tool: A tool is something that helps you do a task.
  • foreign: If something is foreign, it is from a different country.
  • however: However means despite or not being influenced by something.
  • lawyer: A lawyer works with the law and represents people in court.
  • mention: To mention something is to talk about it.
  • social: If something is social, it is about many people in a community.
  • achieve: To achieve something is to successfully do it after trying hard.
  • already: If something happens already, it happens before a certain time.
  • bit: A bit is a small amount of something.
  • consider: To consider something means to think about it.
  • destroy: To destroy means to damage something so badly that it cannot be used.
  • lie: To lie is to say or write something untrue to deceive someone.
  • opinion: An opinion is a thought about a person or a thing.
  • real: If something is real, it actually exists.
  • war: A war is a big fight between two groups of people.
  • worth: If something is worth an amount of money, it costs that amount.
  • appear: To appear is to seem.
  • base: The base is the bottom of something.
  • later: Later means after the present, expected, or usual time.
  • pain: Pain is the feeling that you have when you are hurt.
  • various: If something is various, there are many types of it.
  • contact: To contact someone is to speak or write to them.
  • manage: To manage something means to control or be in charge of it.
  • receive: To receive something is to get it.
  • set: To set something is to put it somewhere.
  • advance: To advance is to go forward.
  • behind: Behind means to be at the back of something.
  • course: A course is a class in school.
  • lower: To lower something is to make it go down.
  • member: A member is a person who is part of a group.
  • mental: If something is mental, it has to do with your mind.
  • event: An event is something that happens, especially something important.
  • fit: If something fits, it is small enough orthe right size to go there.
  • public: If something is public, it is meant for everyone to use.
  • unite: To unite is to get together to do something.
  • factory: A factory is a building where things are made or put together.
  • feature: A feature is an important part of something.
  • involve: To involve means to be actively taking part in something.
  • period: A period is an amount of time when something happens.
  • produce: To produce something is to make or grow it.
  • range: A range is a number or a set of similar things.
  • final: If something is final, it is the last part.
  • further: Further is used to say something is from a distance or time.
  • prove: To prove something is to show that it is true.
  • react: To react is to act in a certain way because of something that happened.
  • society: Society is people and the way that they live.
  • desert: The desert is an area of land without many plants or water.
  • journey: A journey is a long trip.
  • trip: A trip is a journey to a certain place.
  • value: If something has value, it is worth a lot of money.
  • instrument: An instrument is something designed to do a certain task like music.
  • list: A list is a record of information printed with an item on each line.
  • own: To own something means to have it. That thing belongs to you.
  • stage: A stage is a place where actors or musicians act or sing.
  • within: You use within to say that something is inside another thing.
  • competition: A competition is a contest to see who is the best at something.
  • gain: If you gain something, you get more of it.
  • major: If something is major, it is big or important.
  • mean: Mean describes someone who is unkind or cruel.
  • progress: Progress is the act of getting closer to doing or finishing something.
  • skill: A skill is the knowledge and ability that allows you to do something well.
  • strength: Strength is the physical power that you have.
  • above: If something is above, it is at a higher level than something else.
  • common: If something is common, it happens often or there is much of it.
  • cost: To cost is to require expenditure or payment.
  • different: Different describes someone or something that is not the same as others.
  • independent: If something is independent, it is not controlled by something else.
  • master: A master is a person who is very good at something.
  • proper: If something is proper, it is right.
  • section: A section is a part of something larger.
  • surface: The surface of something is the top part or outside of it.

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